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Rehabilitation Physiology Lab

Fisher NM, DR Pendergast and E Calkins. Maximal Isometric Torque of Knee Extension as a Function of Muscle Length in Subjects of Advancing age. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 71(10):729-734, 1990.

Many neuromuscular diseases are associated with muscle weakness. Assessment of this weakness by manual muscle testing or with hand-held equipment has been criticized. Furthermore, muscle length influences peak force development. One hundred fifty-three female and 116 male asymptomatic subjects between the ages of 20 and 80 (approximately 20 per decade) were studied. Maximal strength of the quadriceps group was determined isometrically, on a specially designed bench, at 3 hip angles (45 degrees, 90 degrees, and 180 degrees of extension), which represent three rectus femoris muscle lengths. Maximal strength was observed at a hip angle of 180 degrees and did not decrease significantly from 20 to 50 years of age, although the values for the male and female subjects over 50 years were significantly decreased (approximately 15% per decade). The increase in strength as the muscle was lengthened from 45 degrees to 180 degrees hip angle was about 80% (of the force at 45 degrees) in 20-year-olds; strength decreased progressively with age to a value of approximately 50% in the 70-year-olds. This greater reduction in maximal strength at longer quadriceps muscle lengths has functional significance in rising from a chair, climbing stairs, and eventually, walking and standing



Perini R, NM Fisher, A Veicsteinas, DR Pendergast. Aerobic Training and Cardiovascular Responses at Rest and during Exercise in Older Men and Women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:700-708, 2002.

Pendergast DR, NM Fisher and E Calkins. Cardiovascular, neuromuscular, and metabolic alterations with age leading to frailty . J Gerontol: Biol Sci 48(Special Issue):61-67, 1993.

Perini R, S Milesi, NM Fisher, DR Pendergast, A Veicsteinas. Heart Rate Variability during Dynamic Exercise in Elderly Males and Females. Eur J Appl Physiol 82(1-2):8-15, 2000.

Fisher NM, DR Pendergast. Improved cardiac output after exercise in the head-down tilt position in elderly subjects. Gerontologist 39 Special Issue I:466, 1999.

Fisher NM, DR Pendergast and E Calkins. Muscle Rehabilitation in Impaired Elderly Nursing Home Residents. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 72(3):181-185, 1991.

Pendergast DR, E Calkins, NM Fisher and R Vickers. Muscle Rehabilitation in Nursing Home Residents with Cognitive Impairment: a Pilot Study. Am J Alzheimer Care Rel Dis July/August:: 20-25, 1987.