Pendergast DR, NM Fisher and E Calkins. Cardiovascular,
neuromuscular, and metabolic alterations with age leading to frailty
. J Gerontol: Biol Sci 48(Special Issue):61-67, 1993.
As members of our society live longer, a greater percentage of
the population will be older. These demographic changes will stress
our social and medical delivery system, unless interventions can
alter the course leading to frailty. Maximal aerobic power decreases
with age, due to a decrease in cardiac output, and is exacerbated
by cardiovascular disease. Asymptomatic aging does not reduce cardiovascular
function to an extent that would lead to loss of function. Metabolism,
endurance, and contraction velocity and muscle strength remain relatively
high until 40, 50, and 60 years of age, respectively. After age
60, there are dramatic decreases (approximately 10% per year) which
lead to loss of function and independence. The loss of muscle function
leads to an increase in the likelihood of falls (approximately 4-fold).
Exercise programs utilizing "aerobic" exercise activities do not
lead to an increase in muscle function, whereas programs designed
specifically for muscle can increase function and, presumably, reduce
the risk of falls and injuries. [References: 53]
R, NM Fisher, A Veicsteinas, DR Pendergast. Aerobic
Training and Cardiovascular Responses at Rest and during Exercise
in Older Men and Women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:700-708,
R, S Milesi, NM Fisher, DR Pendergast, A Veicsteinas.
Heart Rate Variability during Dynamic Exercise in Elderly
Males and Females. Eur J Appl Physiol 82(1-2):8-15, 2000.
NM, DR Pendergast. Improved cardiac output after exercise
in the head-down tilt position in elderly subjects. Gerontologist
39 Special Issue I:466, 1999.
NM, DR Pendergast and E Calkins. Maximal Isometric Torque
of Knee Extension as a Function of Muscle Length in Subjects of Advancing
age. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 71(10):729-734, 1990.
NM, DR Pendergast and E Calkins. Muscle Rehabilitation in
Impaired Elderly Nursing Home Residents. Arch Phys Med
Rehabil 72(3):181-185, 1991.
DR, E Calkins, NM Fisher and R Vickers. Muscle Rehabilitation
in Nursing Home Residents with Cognitive Impairment: a Pilot Study.
Am J Alzheimer Care Rel Dis July/August:: 20-25, 1987.
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